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Portland (/prtlnd/ or PORT-lnd/) is the biggest city in the U.S. state of Oregon. It’s also a Pacific Northwest port. Multnomah County is located in Portland, Oregon’s biggest county. It is located near the confluence of the Columbia and Willamette rivers. Portland is the 26th most populous city in the United States, sixth on the West Coast, and second in the Pacific Northwest behind Seattle, with a population of 652,503 people. Portland’s metropolitan statistical area (MSA) contains around 2.5 million people, making it the 25th most populated city in the United States. The Portland metropolitan region is home to about half of Oregon’s population.
The Oregon colony was named after Portland, Maine, and was founded shortly after the Oregon Trail was completed in the 1840s. The city’s proximity to water made it simple to transport goods. The lumber business was a significant contributor to the city’s early economy. The city was regarded as a hotspot for organized crime and racketeering around the turn of the twentieth century. The city’s hard-edged reputation began to fade as the city’s economy enjoyed an industrial boom. Portland has a reputation as a counter-culture hub due to its progressive political ideas. This occurred in the 1960s.
During the last ice age, the Willamette Valley was inundated with water from 300 to 400 feet (91 – 122 m). Prior to the advent of American settlers, the land was inhabited by two indigenous Chinook tribes, the Multnomah and Clackamas. Meriwether Lewis (or William Clark) was the first to document the Chinook inhabitants of the country in 1805. The Portland Basin was the most densely inhabited area on the Pacific Coast prior to European contact. It is situated in the valleys of the lower Columbia and Willamette rivers.
The Portland Establishment
The Oregon Trail attracted many pioneer immigrants to Willamette Valley in the 1840s. Many people moved to nearby Oregon City. The Hudson’s Bay Company then erected a new settlement ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River, almost halfway between Oregon City, Fort Vancouver, and Fort Vancouver. Because of the quantity of trees that were chopped down to create place for its expansion, this hamlet was originally known as “Stumptown” or “The Clearing.” William Overton, a colonialist in 1843, realized the promise of the new town but lacked the funds to file a property claim.
Overton offered Asa Lovejoy of Boston 25 cents for half of the 640 acres (2.6 km2) of property. Overton sold half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Portland, Maine, in 1845. Lovejoy and Pettygrove wished to rename The Clearing after their hometowns (Boston for Lovejoy, Portland for Pettygrove). To settle the argument, a coin toss was employed. Pettygrove won two of the three games, and Portland was born. The coinage used in the trial is on exhibit at the Oregon Historical Society. It is currently known as the Portland Penny. When Portland was formed on February 8, 1851, it had a population of about 800 people. It contained a log cabin hotel and a steam sawmill.
The Weekly Oregonian, a weekly newspaper, was also published. In August 1873, a major fire broke out in downtown Portland. It destroyed twenty blocks on the west bank of the Willamette River between Yamhill and Morrison Streets. The cost of the damage was $1.3 million, which is about equal to $29.4 million today. By 1879, the population had climbed to 17,500, then to 46,385.  Portland was the first West Coast steel bridge to open in 1888. This was the forerunner to the 1912 Steel Bridge, which still stands today. Georgiana Pittock, Henry Pittock’s widow, formed the Portland Rose Society in 1889. The notion for Portland to become a “Rose City” arose as the city prepared for the 1905 Lewis & Clark Centennial Exposition.
Portland benefited from its closeness to the Pacific Ocean via the Columbia and Willamette rivers, as well as its easy access to Tualatin Valley via the “Great Plank Road” (now US Route 26). It rapidly took off. For the most of the nineteenth century, Portland was the largest port in the Pacific Northwest. This lasted until the 1890s, when Seattle’s deepwater harbor was linked to the rest of the city by rail. It provided an inner path away from the perils of the Columbia River. One cause for this was the city’s own Japantown. Because of the vast population of big leaf maple, western hemlock, and Douglas fir trees, the wood industry established a considerable economic presence.
1898 The waterfront in Portland The White Eagle Saloon (about 1910), one of numerous Portland institutions suspected of involvement in illicit activities like as prostitution and gambling. Portland has always been a rough, harsh port town. Some historians claim the city was founded by a “scion from New England,” as a haven at the end of the world for the banished descendants of the eastern entrenched Aristocracy. The Oregonian ranked Portland as one of the world’s most hazardous ports in 1889. The city had several saloons and bordellos, as well as gambling dens and boardinghouses.
These locations were popular among miners passing through the port following the California Gold Rush. By the turn of the century, the city’s reputation as a dangerous and violent “sober frontier” metropolis had faded. Progress in the twentieth century, 1937, Burnside Street Between 1900 and 1930, the city’s population more than tripled, from around 100,000 to 301 815. During WWII, it housed a “assemblage center” from which 3676 Japanese-Americans were transferred to internment camps in the Midwest. The Pacific International Livestock Exposition handled people from Seattle, Washington, and northern Oregon from May through September 10, 1942.
General John DeWitt referred to the city as the “West Coast’s first Jap-free zone.” Portland was a prominent center for organized crime and underground criminal activities in the 1940s and 1950s. A 1957 article in Life magazine described the city’s history of corruption and lawlessness, particularly its gambling ring. The narrative of criminal lord Jim Elkins was dramatized into the film Portland Expose (1957). Despite illegal operations and shadier undercurrents, Portland had an industrial and economic boom throughout WWII. Shipbuilder Henry J. Kaiser was awarded contracts to construct Liberty ships and aircraft carrier transports. He had decided on Portland, Washington, for his construction yards. Portland’s population increased by around 150,000 over this period, owing primarily to employee hiring.
San Francisco experienced the birth of the counterculture scene in the 1960s. Hippie subcultures flourished around this time. The Crystal Ballroom was a hub of the city’s psychedelic cultural scene. Food cooperatives, as well as listener-funded radio and television stations, were established. During this period, there was also a significant presence of social activists, particularly in the fields of Native American rights, environmental problems, and LGBT rights. By the 1970s, Portland had become a progressive city. Throughout the decade, the city saw economic growth. However, the 1979 housing market halt resulted in a severe reduction in demand for the city’s state wood industry and a considerable loss in population. Portland’s technology industry surged dramatically in the 1990s, owing mostly to the emergence of corporations such as Intel, which produced over $10 billion in investment in 1995 alone. Between 2000 and 2014, Portland witnessed unprecedented expansion.
Between 2000 and 2014, its population increased by more than 90%. Portland’s rising cultural presence has made the city appealing to young people. In terms of attracting and retaining the most college-educated Americans, it was second only to Louisville, Kentucky. Between 2001 and 2012, Portland’s GDP per capita climbed by 50%, more than any other American city. Throughout its history, the city has been referred to as “Rose City” and “The City of Roses,” with the latter being its colloquial appellation since 1888 and its official one since 2003.
The airport code for Portland International Airport, “PDX,” is another frequent nickname. Other nicknames include Bridgetown, Stumptown, and Rip City. Portlandia, P-Town, and the older Little Beirut In Portland, Oregon, George Floyd protests.
Also see: Federal Force Deployment to the United States in 2020 Activities in Portland, Oregon George Floyd’s Protests July 2020
Protests against the police shooting of George Floyd began on May 28, 2020, and lasted until the spring of 2021. The police conducted activities that resulted in injuries and deaths, such as vandalism and looting. According to Oregon Public Broadcasting, theft and damage cost local companies millions of dollars. Some gatherings culminated in skirmishes between law enforcement personnel and demonstrators, resulting in injuries to both officers and protestors. In July, federal police were dispatched to defend government property. Politicians in Oregon decried their presence and asked that they leave. Meanwhile, federal and local law enforcement have been sued for suspected illegal actions. On the one-year anniversary of Floyd’s death, May 25th, 2021, a protest was conducted. The protest caused severe property damage and resulted in numerous arrests.
Geography and Geology in Portland
See also Pacific Northwest Geology.
Portland sits above the Boring Lava Plain. Boring, a nearby bedroom community, inspired the name of this inactive volcanic region. Mount Tabor is one of at least 32 cinder cones in the Boring Lava Field, which is located in southeast Portland. Mount St. Helens is an active volcano in Washington State, about 50 miles (80 kilometers) northeast of Portland. On clear days, it may be seen plainly.  Portland’s rocks date from the Eocene to the present. The Portland metropolitan region is traversed by a number of active, shallow fault lines. These include the Portland Hills Fault on the city’s west side and the East Bank Fault on the city’s east side. In a 2017 evaluation, several faults were rated “potentially more dangerous” than the Cascadia Subduction Zone due to their closeness to population centers.
These faults have the potential to create earthquakes of magnitude 7. Recent notable earthquakes in the Portland area include the 6.8 magnitude Nisqually earthquake in 2001 and the 5.6 magnitude March 25, 1993 earthquake. According to a 2014 study, roughly 7,000 locations in Portland are at danger of landslides or soil liquefaction in the event of a significant earthquake. This comprises the majority of Portland’s westside (including Washington Park) as well as sections of Clackamas County. Portland’s Terrain Portland is located 60 miles (97 kilometers) east of Oregon’s Pacific Ocean. It is located towards the northern end of the Willamette Valley. This is Oregon’s most populous region.
Downtown Portland is accessible from both sides of the Willamette River. This river travels north through the city center, dividing it into east and west halves. The Columbia River is only around 10 miles (16 kilometers) from downtown. It discharges into the Willamette River. Portland, located on the Columbia River, is about 100 miles (160 kilometers) upriver from the Pacific Ocean. Although much of Portland is very flat, the Tualatin Mountains, sometimes known as the “West Hills,” cut across the northwest and southwest areas of the city. Council Crest Park, at 1,073 feet (327 meters), is frequently referred to as Portland’s highest point. It is, however, located on NW Skyline Blvd, just north of the Willamette Stone Heritage Site. Mt. Tabor, an extinct volcano cinder cone east of the river, rises to 636 feet. It is also the highest peak in the area (194m). Rocky Butte and Powell Butte both have elevations of 614 feet (187 meters).
The Oregon Coast Range dominates the Tualatin Mountains to the west. To the east, the Cascade Range is a volcanically active area. Mt. Hood and Mt. St. Helens dominate the horizon on clear days, with Mt. Adams and Mt. Rainier visible in the distance. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 145.09 square miles (375.78km2). There are 133.43 square miles (345.58km2) of land and 11.66 square miles (30.20km2) of water. Multnomah County encompasses nearly all of Portland. However, there are minor parts of the city in Clackamas and Washington Counties, with 785 and 1,455 residents, respectively.
The warm-summer Mediterranean climate of Portland is recognized as Koppen Csb. This climate is somewhat colder than Koppen Csa’s hot-summer Mediterranean climate. Winters are moderate, while summers are arid. During the fall, winter, and spring seasons, Portland’s climate is characterized by overcast, damp, and changeable weather conditions. This is because Portland lies directly in the path of the stormy west flow. Summers are also pleasant and dry, with the North Pacific High reaching its northernmost peak in July.
The USDA Plant Hardiness Zone for Portland is 8b. Zone 9a applies to areas of Downtown. Winters may be mild, damp, and cloudy. The coldest month is December, with an average daily high of 46.9 degrees F. (8.3 degrees Celsius). Nightly lows are often a few degrees above freezing. Temperatures drop below freezing at night on average 32 nights each year. However, temperatures seldom fall below 18 degrees F. (8 degC). Only 2.1 days per year do daytime low temperatures fall below freezing. Due to the infrequency of cold waves, the average temperature at the lowest point is 32 degrees F (0 degrees Celsius). The lowest midday temperature on December 30, 1968 was 14 degrees Celsius. On February 2, 1950, the night temperature was 3 degrees (19 degrees Celsius). A normal freezing temperature window is between November 15th and March 19th, allowing for a 240-day growth span. Portland gets an average of 4.3 inches (10.9cm) of snow every year.
The majority of the time is between December and March. Because to its low height and the influence of urban heat islands, Portland is more likely to escape snow than its suburbs. Outside of the city area, a little snowfall is possible, especially in higher elevations such as the West Hills or Mount Tabor. However, no buildup occurs in downtown. There have been numerous big snow and ice storms in the city’s history. In 1949-50, the airport received 44.5 inches (113 cm), whereas downtown received 60.9 inches (155 cm) in 1892-93. The climate in Portland is ideal for rose growing. International Rose Test Garden provided the image.
Summers in Portland are hot, dry, and sunny. However, the sun is only visible from mid-June until early September. Total precipitation in June-July and August-September is 4.19 inches (106mm). This accounts for just 11% of the yearly precipitation total of 36.91in (938 in). August had the highest average temperature of 82.3 degrees F. (27.9 degrees Celsius). Portland’s chilly summers are shielded from the moderate Pacific Ocean by its inland location, which is 70 miles (110 kilometers) from the coast.
The Oregon Coast Range protects the west, and Portland is 70 miles (110 kilometers) distant. Heat waves occur in Portland only on very rare occasions. Temperatures can reach 90°F (32°C) for a few days. Only 61 days per year do temperatures reach 80 degrees Fahrenheit (27 degrees Celsius). Only 15 days hit 90 degrees (32 degrees Celsius), and only 1.3 days exceed 100 degrees Fahrenheit (33.8 degC). In 2018, 31 days were the most amount of 90-degree days in a single year. On June 28th, 2021, Portland, Oregon established a temperature record of 116 degrees (47 degrees Celsius). It also marked the day’s lowest temperature of 75 degrees (24 degC). during the Western North America heatwave of 2021 From May through September, temperatures reached 100 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius).
On the warmest evenings of the year, the average temperature is 68 degrees Fahrenheit (20 degrees Celsius). High-pressure ridging can cause temperatures to rise over 80 degrees (27 degrees Celsius), while cold fronts can bring midday temperatures as low as the 40s (4-9 degC). The weather in the spring and fall may be unpredictable. From mid-fall until mid-spring, there are extended spells of overcast sky. For extended periods of time, a mild rain can be noticed. This leads to an annual rainfall total of 155 days. In April and October, temperatures hit 90 degrees (32 degrees Celsius). They have dropped to 80 degrees (27 degrees Celsius) as early as April and as late as October. Thunderstorms with lightning are uncommon occurrences. Tornadoes are extremely rare, but not unheard of.
More About Portland Oregon
Portland, Oregon’s largest city, sits on the Columbia and Willamette rivers, in the shadow of snow-capped Mount Hood. It’s known for its parks, bridges and bicycle paths, as well as for its eco-friendliness and its microbreweries and coffeehouses. Iconic Washington Park encompasses sites from the formal Japanese Garden to Oregon Zoo and its railway. The city hosts thriving art, theater and music scenes. ― Google